DANGEROUS OPERATIONS GROUP DOCTRINE
UPDATED 31 OCTOBER 2012
Next Update is scheduled for July 2014
The Dangerous Operations Group's [DOG] basic fighting doctrine is called The Planet Side AirLand Battle.
It reflects time proven fundamentals, from the structure of modem warfare, and the experiences of real combat in real life
as well as combat inside the realm of Planet Side.
Planet Side AirLand Battle doctrine provides a specific mission for DOG infantry forces based on "Real World" Tactics.
NOTE: ALL, members of Dangerous Operations Group are Light Assault Infantry first and formost before utilizing other Class Battle Equipment.
Required Unit Certifications are required of all DOG members, and DOG members will attend training on the DOG ways of doing battle.
Section I. DOG FUNDAMENTALS
Among the DOG infantry’s basic fundamentals are the principles of
war, the elements of combat power, and the tenets of Planet Side AirLand
Battle. These fundamentals have application at the platoon, squad, and team level.
This section provides the mission of the DOG light assualt infantry and
the doctrine principles basic to the DOG light assault infantry rifle platoon and
squad. These principles form the basis for DOG platoon, DOG squad, and DOG teams,
tactics, techniques, procedures, and drills. This section also discusses
the elements of combat power and the skills required of
leaders and soldiers at the DOG fire team level.
1-1. DOG MISSION
The mission of the DOG light assault infantry is to close with the enemy by means of fire and
maneuver to defeat him, or to repel his assault by fire, close
combat, and counterattack.
a. Despite any technological dis-advantages that our Terran Republic armed forces might
have over an enemy, close combat between ground forces gains the decision in battle.
DOG Infantry rifle forces (Infantry, Airborne, Air Assault,
Light Infantry, Ranger and Calvary) have a key role in close combat situations.
• Attack over approaches that are not feasible for DOG heavy forces.
• Make initial penetrations in difficult terrain for exploitations by DOG armor and DOG mechanized infantry.
• Retain existing obstacles and difficult terrain as pivots for DOG operational and tactical maneuver.
• Seize or secure forested and built-up areas.
• Control restrictive routes for use by other forces.
• Operate primarily at all time zones at day or night or during other periods of Planetside induced limited visibility.
• Follow and support exploiting heavy forces from other units when augmented with transportation.
b. Success in battle hinges on:
• the actions of DOG platoons, squads and teams in close combat;
• on their ability to react to contact,
• employ suppressive fires,
• maneuver to a vulnerable flank,
• and fight through to defeat or destroy, the enemy.
The successful actions of DOG small units relies on the ability of leaders and soldiers to use terrain to
good advantage; to operate their weapons with accuracy and deadly effect; to out think, out move, and
out fight the enemy.
c. DOG Infantry platoons, squads, and teams normally operate alone for specific mission types. However all DOG units
will at times, work with or along side other outfits / units with different size forces depending on the Prime Times
of Real World Time Zones. DOG Platoons, squads, and teams benefit from the support of other Planet Side infantry units,
armor, artillery, mortars, close air, air defense, and engineer assets. DOG units also provide their own suppressive fires
either to repel enemy assaults or to support their own maneuver. DOG unit members will always rely on DOG members first.
1-2. COMBAT POWER
The doctrine that guides DOG infantry forces is based on the four elements of
combat power: maneuver, firepower, protection, and leadership.
a. DOG Maneuver.
DOG Maneuver is the movement of forces supported by fire
to achieve a position of advantage from which to destroy or threaten
destruction of the enemy. DOG Infantry forces move to gain a position of
advantage over the enemy and to hold that advantage. They maneuver to
attack enemy flanks, rear areas, logistics points, and command posts. In
the defense, they maneuver to counterattack a flank of the enemy attack.
Maneuver, properly supported by fires, allows the DOG infantry to close with
the enemy and gain a decision in combat.
b. DOG Firepower.
DOG Firepower is the capacity of a DOG platoon, squad, or team to deliver effective
fires on a target. Overall DOG firepower will kill and suppresses the enemy in his positions,
deceive the enemy, and support DOG maneuvers. Without effective supporting
fires the DOG infantry cannot maneuver. Before attempting to maneuver,
DOG plattons, squads, and teams must establish a base of fire. A base of fire is placed on an enemy
force or position to reduce or eliminate the enemy’s ability to interfere
with DOG and friendly maneuver elements. Leaders must know how to control,
mass, and combine fire with maneuver. Leaders must identify the most
critical targets quickly, direct fires onto them, and ensure that the volume
of fires is sufficient to keep the enemy from returning fire effectively, while preventing
DOG units from expending ammunition needlessly.
c. DOG Protection.
Protection is the conservation of the fighting potential
of a force so that it can be applied at the decisive time and place.
DOG Leaders must never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage. Platoons,
squads, teams will take active and passive measures to protect themselves
from surprise, observation, detection, interference, espionage, sabotage,
or annoyance. Protection includes two basic considerations: care of the
soldier and his equipment, and action to counter enemy combat power.
(1) The first consideration involves sustainment techniques necessary
to maintain the platoon, squads, teams as an effective fighting force. It
includes keeping soldiers healthy to maintain fighting morale through
personal health hygiene using a personal Restoration Kits,
or Medical Kits, for MAX personal armor physical conditioning using a Nano Armor Kit repair tool,
and rest plans for real life bio breaks.
It also includes keeping equipment in good working condition with a Nano Armor Kit, providing and protecting
supplies for refit after an engagment.
It means managing the Warrior’s load so that he carries
only what is needed and is fit to fight when required. DOG loadouts will be provided to ensure the necessary
equipment is on hand for every engagement contingent on a members MTOE slot. There are currently three loadouts available,
with the latter two unlocked by Battle Rank.
(2) The second consideration involves security, dispersion, cover, camouflage,
deception, and suppression of enemy weapons. Ultimately, the DOG light assault infantryman
must remain undetected to survive. Once found, the DOG infantryman
becomes vulnerable to all the fires of the enemy and he must either fight
to break contact or to close with and finish the enemy. The DOG infantry always
wants to set the time and place of battle, and must protect itself so that it
can do so with maximum combat power and the important element of
d. DOG Leadership. Military leadership is a process by which a assigned leader
influences others to accomplish the mission. DOG Leaders coordinate the
other three elements of combat power. Their competent and confident
leadership results in effective unit action. The right leadership gives
purpose, direction, and motivation in combat.
DOG Leaders must know their
profession, their soldiers, and the tools of war. Only this kind of leader
can direct soldiers to do difficult tasks under dangerous and stressful
conditions. ALL DOG Leaders will under go the DOG Leadership Training Program and will be signed
off by the DOG Outfit / Unit Leader.
1-3.DOG LEADER SKILLS
DOG Infantry platoon, squad, and team leaders must be tacticians. They cannot rely
on a book to solve tactical problems. They must understand and use
initiative in accomplishing the mission. This means that they must know
how to analyze the situation quickly and make decisions rapidly in light
of the DOG commander’s intent. They must be prepared to take independent
action if necessary following DOG Mission Proccedures.
The art of making sound decisions quickly lies in the
knowledge of tactics, the estimate process, and platoon, squad, and basic Fire Team techniques
and procedures. The skills required of DOG infantry leaders include
physical toughness, technical knowledge, mental agility, and a firm grasp
of how to motivate soldiers, civilian or actual military types to fight on in the face of adversity.
1-4. DOG WARRIOR SKILLS
DOG Warriors with sharply honed individual skills form the building blocks of combat
effective DOG fire teams, squads and platoons. They must maintain a high state of
They must be experts in the use of their primary
weapons. They must be proficient in light assault infantry skills (land navigation,
using land as camouflage, individual movement techniques, survival techniques, and
so forth). Finally, they must know and practice their roles as members
of DOG fire teams, squads, and platoons.
DOG Warrior Skills are translated in Planetside 2 by way of the Cert Point. All Members of DOG will
be assigned to an MTOE position with defined Cert requirements. This position is a vetted slot against position
and roles within DOG teams, squads and platoons.
While MTOE slots are static and unchanging in themselves, Individual
roles while in a team, squad, or platoon will change depending on the amount of members online at anyone
time and or / Misson requirements by the Group Leader of the DOG Platoon, Squad, or Team.
Teams, Roles, and Specfic Misions are discused in Detail in seperate documents.
1-5. DOG TRAINING
DOG Infantry units must train properly for combat. Training must conform to
Dangerous Operation (s) Group doctrine.
Doctrinal Web Site Manuals provide leaders correct procedures
and principles to conduct training properly.
NOTE:these manuals will be forth coming after launch, not while in BETA, because of the numerous changes taking place in BETA
These will be found on the web site: DOG Leaders and DOG Warriors must
understand the standardized doctrinal principles found in applicable DOG Website publications.
They should refer to the web site to find the specific conditions
and standards for the techniques and procedures discussed in this
Training must require DOG leaders to use their initiative and
make decisions quickly. The training environment must be realistic and
Training must challenge soldiers to master all infantry tasks,
individual and collective, and it must constantly remind them of their
mission, their heritage, and the physical and mental toughness that is
required of them.
DOG Training must also promote the cohesion of the Team Concept so that,
when all else fails, Fire Teams continue to fight until they fall together per the DOG Mantra.
"Always Fight Hard to Train - Finding the Time to Train is hard.
Train as you fight, Training any other way leads to failure.
Train Hard To Fight - Put all you have into it and you will be suscessful when the time comes.
Fight As you Train - And you will overpower the untrained.
Fight Hard To Win - And you will defeat you enemies.
The best Defense is a strong Offense, The best Offense requires Training."
SFC Javurek - TNCO - FANG 88 to 93
Section II. DOG OPERATIONS
This section describes the basic tactical operations undertaken
by DOG infantry platoons, squad-movements, and team actions, in offense, and
defense. It also discusses the requirement for security which is
inherent in all DOG operations. DOG Infantry tactics build on the following principles:
1. DOG Teams, DOG Squads and DOG Platoons fight through enemy contact at the lowest possible level the Fire Team.
2. DOG Teams and DOG Squads in contact with the enemy must establish effective suppressive fire before they or other DOG Teams or Squads can maneuver.
3. If the DOG team cannot move under its own fires, the DOG squad must attempt to gain suppressive fires first and then maneuver
against the enemy position.
4. If the DOG squad cannot move under its own fires, the DOG platoon must attempt to gain suppressive firest fires and then maneuver
against the enemy position.
5.All DOG units will fight as an organized force with fire teams, squads and platoons retaining their integrity.
6. Even DOG "buddy teams" slay the same. See The Unit Mantra.
a. DOG BASIC INFANTRY BUDDY TEAM:
The team leader and the automatic rifleman form one buddy team.
The grenadier (Thumper) and a rifleman form the other buddy team.
NOTE: A description of specfic Team Roles and steps required to be met for DOG Missions can be found on the web site.
7. Success depends upon all soldiers understanding what
the platoon is trying to do and the specific steps necessary
to accomplish the mission.
8. The platoon leader never waits for the team or squad in contact
to develop the situation.
9.Anytime a fire team makes
contact, the platoon also begins taking action.
That way the platoon can quickly provide additional support,
maneuver to take up the assault, or follow-up on the
success of the squad that made contact.
1-6. DOG MOVEMENT
Movement refers to the shifting of forces on the battlefield. The key to
moving successfully involves selecting the best combination of formations
and movement techniques in each situation. Leaders consider the factors
of mission, enemy, terrain, and troops and time available (METT-T) in
selecting the best route and the appropriate formation and movement
technique. The leader’s selection must allow moving squads to -
• Maintain cohesion.
• Maintain momentum.
• Provide maximum protection.
• Move smoothly to offensive or defensive action.
a. Formations. Formations are arrangements of units and of warriors
in relation to each other. Platoons and squads use formations for control,
security, and flexibility and are made from teams.
(1) Control. Every warrior, team or squad has a standard position. Soldiers
can see their team leaders. Fire team leaders can see their squad
leaders. Leaders control their units using whisper channels in Team Speak 3.
(2) Security. Formations also provide 360-degree security and allow
units to give the weight of their firepower to the flanks or front in
anticipation of enemy contact.
(3) Flexibility. Formations do not demand parade ground precision.
Platoons and squads must retain the flexibility needed to vary their
formations to the situation. The use of formations allows warriors to
execute battle drills more quickly and gives them the assurance that their
leaders and buddy team members arc in their expected positions and
performing the right tasks.
b. Movement Techniques. Movement techniques describe the position
of squads and fire teams in relation to each other during movement.
Platoons and squads usc three movement techniques: traveling, traveling
overwatch, and bounding overwatch.
(1) Like formations, movement [techniques provide varying degrees
of control security, and flexibility.
(2) Movement techniques differ from formations in two ways:
(a) Formations are relatively fixed; movement techniques are not.
The distance between moving units or the distance that a squad bounds
away from an overwtatching squad varies based on factors of METT-T.
(b) Formations allow the platoon to weight its maximum firepower
in a desired direction; movement techniques allow squads to make contact
with the enemy with the smallest element possible. This allows leaders to
establish a base of fire, initiate suppressive fires, and attempt to maneuver
without first having to disengage or be reinforced.
(3) Leaders base their selection of a particular movement technique
on the likelihood of enemy contact and the requirement for speed.
c. Other Considerations. In planning tactical movement, leaders
should also consider the requirements for—
• Cover and concealment
• Observation and fields of fire.
• Maneuver space.
• Command and control.
1-7. DOG OFFENSE
Units undertake offensive operations to destroy the enemy and his will to
fight; to seize terrain; to learn enemy strength and disposition; or to
deceive, divert, or fix the enemy. DOG Infantry platoons and squads normally
conduct offensive operations as part of a larger force. However, they can
perform some offensive operations independently in units as small as two man teams. The company commander’s
application of combat power at the decisive point determines
the outcome of the battle. Offensive operations are characterized by
flexibility, surprise, concentration, speed, and audacity. Offensive operations
include movements to contact, attacks, raids, reconnaissance and
security operations, and ambushes.
a. Movement to Contact. A movement to contact is an offensive
action that seeks (to gain or regain contact with the enemy. Usually, a unit
moving to contact lacks detailed information about the enemy. Upon
making contact, a unit identifies the enemy strengths and weaknesses as
it develops the situation. A DOG platoon conducts a movement to contact as
part of a company as it pertains to DOG Infantry actions, but may also have other
DOG Support Units such as Air Assult, Airborne, and Calvary Platoons working in Joint Operations.
Considerations for planning and conducting movements
to contact include —
• Make enemy contact with the smallest element possible.
• Prevent detection of elements not in contact until they are in the assault.
• Maintain 360-degree security at all times.
• Report all information quickly and accurately.
• Maintain contact once it is gained.
• Generate combat power rapidly upon contact.
• Fight through at the lowest level possible.
b. Infiltration. Infiltration is a form of maneuver in the offense. It
is a means of reaching the enemy’s rear without fighting through prepared
defenses. Infantry platoons infiltrate to move into or through an area
without being seen or heard. An infiltration is not an end in itself but a
means to an end.
(1) Platoons infiltrate -
• To gather information.
• To attack enemy positions from the rear.
• To conduct raids or ambushes in enemy rear areas.
• To capture prisoners.
• To seize key terrain in support of other operations.
• To aid a main attack.
(2) An infiltration has five phases.
(a) Patrol. Find gaps, weak areas in enemy defenses and enemy
(b) Prepare. Make plans, give orders, coordinate with forward and
flank units, and rehearse.
(c) Infiltrate. Use the specified infiltration method. Avoid contact.
Ignore ineffective enemy fire.
The three methods of infiltration are:
1. Multiple lanes. When many gaps exist and the terrain can support
a large number of lanes, each squad uses its own lane.
2. Single lane—staggered squads. Units move along a single lane at
staggered times. This method can be used when few gaps exist or
when the ground restricts the number of lanes.
3. Single lane—one squad. A single gap exists on which the whole
squad can move at the same time.
(d) Consolidate. Do this in the enemy rear or along a final linkup
point; then, move to an assault position or an objective rally point to
continue the mission.
(e) Execute. Carry out the assigned mission. The mission can be
destroy enemy forces or equipment, seize key terrain or an area, capture
prisoners, or gather information.
c. Types of Attack.
There are two types of attack: hasty and deliberate.
An attack is an offensive action characterized by
movement supported by fire.
They are distinguished chiefly by the time available for preparation.
Additionally, special-purpose attacks include raids and ambushes.
Successful attack depends on concentrating the maximum possible shock
and violence against the enemy force. DOG Infantry forces combine shock and
violence with surprise. The objective is to shatter the enemy’s nerve, ruin
his synchronization, unravel his plan, and destroy his unit’s cohesion and
the willingness of his soldiers to fight.
A successful attack combines a
scheme of maneuver with a coordinated plan of direct and indirect fire
support. The focus of an attacking platoon’s fire and maneuver is a weak
point, a vulnerable flank, or the rear of an enemy. Once he has identified
the point of attack, the leader establishes a base of fire to kill, fix, or
suppress the enemy at that point. He then maneuvers the rest of his force
to a position from which it can assault.
(1) Hasty attack. A hasty attack is conducted with the forces immediately
available to maintain momentum or to take advantage of the
enemy situation. It does not normally allow for extensive preparation.
(2) Deliberate attack. A deliberate attack is carefully planned and
coordinated. More time is available to perform thorough reconnaissance,
evaluation of all available intelligence and relative combat strength,
analysis of various courses of action, and other factors affecting the
situation. It is generally conducted against a well-organized defense when
a hasty attack is not possible or has been conducted and failed.
(3) Raid. A raid is an operation involving a swift penetration of
hostile territory to secure information, to confuse the enemy, or to destroy
his installations. It ends with a planned withdrawal after completion of
the assigned mission.
(4) Ambush. An ambush is a surprise attack by fire from concealed
positions on a moving or temporarily halted enemy unit. It combines the
advantages and characteristics of the offense with those of the defense.
d. Initiative in the Attack. Seizing and retaining the initiative involves
more than just achieving tactical surprise. It involves a process of
planning and preparing for combat operations, finding the enemy first,
avoiding detection, fixing the enemy, locating or creating a weakness, and
maneuvering to exploit that weakness with a quick and violent assault.
(1) Plan and prepare. Leaders usc the troop-leading procedure to
make sure that all ncecssary steps are taken to prepare for an operation.
Leaders use the estimate of the situation to analyze the factors of METT-T
and to determine the best course of action and to ensure that leaders,
soldiers, and their equipment can perform the tasks necessary to accomplish
(2) Find the enemy. Platoon leaders find the enemy by knowing how
he fights, by analyzing the terrain in light of this knowledge, and by actively
reconnoitering to locate him.
(3) Avoid detection. Platoons avoid detection by moving along the
least expected, generally the most difficult, route. They use the terrain to
mask their movements. They use proper camouflage techniques and
move with stealth. This allows platoons to capitalize on surprise. All of
this requires imagination in leaders and stamina in all soldiers.
(4) Fix the enemy.Platoons and squads fix enemy forces by employing
suppressive fires that kill exposed enemy soldiers and destroy their weapons.
As a minimum, they render the volume and accuracy of the enemy’s
(5) Find or create a weakness. Leaders look for vulnerable flanks, gaps
in lines, or lulls in enemy fire. When they cannot readily find a weakness,
they create one with suppressive fire and the surprise effect of its suddenly
coming from an unexpected direction.
(6) Maneuver to exploit the weakness. Leaders must exploit this weakness
by moving to the best covered and concealed position and then
assaulting to destroy, defeat, or capture the enemy.
(7) Consolidate and reorganize. Finally, platoons and squads must
quickly consolidate the position to defend it against an enemy counterattack.
Units then reorganize themselves and prepare to continue the
e, Control Measures. Leaders use graphic control measures to
regulate or direct the platoon’s movement, positions, and fire.
(1) Control measures are not intended to restrict the exercise of
initiative (the function of command). Leaders use control measures to
clarify their intent, focus the platoon or squad effort, and ensure synchronization.
Each control measure should have a specific purpose that
contributes to mission accomplishment. If a control measure fails the
purpose test, leaders should not use it.
(2) Control measures can be drawn on a map, overlay, sketch, or
a terrain model. Leaders should strive to keep control measures easily
identifiable and simple. Graphic control measures in the offense include
assembly area, attack position, line of departure, boundaries,
route, release point, start point, axis of advance, direction of attack,
phase line, checkpoint, assault position, objective, contact point, linkup
point, infiltration lane, probable line of deployment, and limit of
f. Attacks During Limited Visibility. Attacks during limited visibility
achieve surprise, avoid heavy losses, cause panic in a weak and disorganized
enemy, exploit success, maintain momentum, and keep pressure on
the enemy. Platoons and squads attack whenever possible during limited
visibility. Darkness, fog, heavy rain, falling snow, and the smoke and dust
of combat create limited visibility conditions that allow infantry platoons
and squads to move undetected.
(1) Fundamentals. The fundamentals for a daylight attack apply to
limited visibility attacks. Limited visibility attacks require-
• Well-trained squads.
• Natural light sufficient to employ night vision devices.
• A simple concept with sufficient control measures.
• Detailed, successful reconnaissance of the objective,
routes, passage points, support-by-fire positions, and other key locations.
(2) Considerations Leaders must consider the increased difficulty during
limited visibility operations in performing the following:
• Controlling the movement of individuals and squads.
• Identifying targets and controlling direct and indirect fires.
• Navigating and moving.
• Identifying friendly and enemy soldiers.
• Locating, treating, and evacuating casualties.
• Locating and bypassing or breaching enemy obstacles.
This paragraph describes the characteristics of defensive operations, the
role of the commander's concept in focusing the efforts of DOG platoons, squads, and teams
in the defense, and other considerations for planning defensive
operations. Defensive operations arc characterized by preparation, disruption,
concentration, and flexibility.
DOG Platoons, squads, and teams normally
defend as part of a larger force to disrupt, disorganize, delay, or defeat an
attacking enemy, deny an area to an enemy, or protect a flank. They may
also defend as a part of a larger unit in a retrograde operation. The
challenge to the defender is to retain the initiative, that is, to keep the
enemy reacting and unable to execute his own plan.
a. Initiative in the Defense. Since the enemy decides the time and
place of the attack, leaders seize and retain the initiative in the defense
through careful planning, preparation, coordination, and rehearsal.
Leaders plan and establish the defense to find the enemy first, without
being found; fix the enemy with obstacles and fires; locate or create a
weakness in the enemy’s attack plan; and maneuver to exploit that weakness
with quick violent counterattack.
(1) Plan and prepare. Leaders use the troop-leading procedure to
make sure that all necessary steps are taken to prepare for an operation.
They analyze the factors of METT-T to determine the best course of
action. In the defense, they determine where best to kill the enemy with
fires. They position key weapons to concentrate fires into that area, tie in
fires with obstacles, position the remaining platoon and squad weapons
to support and protect the key weapons, and reconnoiter and rehearse
(2) Find the enemy. DOG Platoon leaders find the enemy by knowing how
he fights, by analyzing the terrain in light of this knowledge, by positioning
OPs along likely avenues of approach, and by actively patrolling to locate
(3) Avoid detection. DOG Platoons avoid detection by securing their defensive
positions or sectors early and continuously, by positioning squads and
weapons away from natural lines of drift or obvious terrain features, and
by employing effective camouflage and noise and light discipline.
(4) Fix the enemy. Platoons use a combination of tactical obstacles
and direct and indirect fires to disrupt the enemy attack and fix the enemy
in a place where the platoon can destroy him with fires.
(5) Find or create a weakness. Platoons create a weakness by destroying
the enemy’s command and control nodes, by isolating an attacking or
assaulting enemy formation from its support, by causing mounted forces
to dismount and thereby slowing the attack and making the enemy vehicles
more vulnerable, by use of night vision devices to gain a visibility
advantage, or by the effective use of illumination to blind or expose the
enemy during his attack.
(6) Maneuver to exploit the weakness. Having created a weakness,
platoons must exploit it with counter attacks against the flank or rear of
the enemy attack by fire ot maneuver. Platoons must carefully coordinate
and rehearse all counterattacks to ensure the proper sychronization in
lifting and shifting of direct and indirect fires. They must also consider
the threat of follow-on enemy forces against their counterattack.
(7) Reorganize. Platoons and squads must be able to reorganize
quickly to continue the defense against follow-on forces.
b. Defense on a Reverse Slope. An infantry company or platoon can
organize a defense on the reverse slope of a hill (Figure 1-1, page 1-12).
This defense is on the part of the hill or ridge that is masked by the crest
from enemy direct fire and ground observation. The platoon must control
the crest by fire.
(1) The advantages of defending from a reverse slope are:
• Enemy ground observation of the position is masked.
• There is more freedom of movement in the position due to the enemy’s lack of ground observation.
• Enemy direct-fire weapons cannot hit the position.
• Enemy indirect fire is less effective due to the lack of enemy ground observation.
• The defender gains surprise.
• If the enemy attacks over the crest, he will isolate himself from his supporting element(s).
(2) The disadvantages of defending from a reverse slope may include the following:
• It is more difficult to observe the enemy. Soldiers can see no farther
forward than the crest, making it difficult to determine just where
the enemy is as he advances. This is especially true during limited
visibility conditions. OPs must be placed well forward of the crest
for early warning and long-range observation.
• Moving out of the position under pressure may be more difficult.
• Fields of fire are normally short. Grazing fire maybe less than 600 meters.
• Obstacles on the forward slope can only be covered with indirect
fire or by units on the flanks-unless some weapons are initially placed forward.
• If the enemy gets to the crest, he can assault down the hill. This may
give him a psychological advantage.
• If enough OPs are not put out or if they are not put in the right
positions, the enemy may suddenly appear at close range without enough warning.
(3) The forward platoons are from 200 to 500 meters from the crest
of the hills where they can have the best fields of fire and still have the
advantages of the reverse slope.
(4) If it places them in supporting distance, the overmatching platoon
is positioned on the forward slope of the next high ground to the rear (counterslope)
• Tasks assigned to the overmatching platoon include:
• Protect the flanks and rear of the forward positions.
• Reinforce the fires of the forward elements.
• Block penetrations of the forward positions.
• Cover the withdrawal of forward units.
(5) Platoon Leaders plan indirect fire FPFs on or short of the crest of
the hill to deny that area to the enemy and to help breakup his assault as
he crosses the crest.
(6) Platoons position OPs on, or just forward of the crest to watch
the entire platoon sector of fire. The OPs can vary in size from two
soldiers to a squad reinforced with machine guns and antiarmor weapons.
(7) Leaders place obstacles below the crest of the hill on the friendly
side. Tied in with an FPF, this can be effective in stopping or slowing an
(8) The conduct of the defense from a reverse slope is the same as
from a forward slope. However, the OPs forward of the position not only
warn of the enemy’s advance but also delay, deceive, and disorganize him
by fire. OPs withdraw before they become engaged by the enemy. If
machine guns are with the OPs, they withdraw first so they can occupy
their primary fighting positions before the enemy reaches the crest. As
the OPs withdraw, indirect tire is placed on the forward slope and on the
crest of the hill to slow the enemy’s advance. Soldiers in primary positions
hold their fire until the enemy crosses the crest. As the enemy moves over
the crest of the hill, the defenders hit him with all available fire.
(9) When the enemy assaults across the crest and is defeated, he will
try to turn, bypass, or envelop the defense. To counter this, the overwatch
element orients its fires to the flanks of the forward slope. Also, the
defense must have appropriate supplementary positions and obstacles, as
well as security elements, to warn if the enemy tries to envelop or bypass
the position. Against armored, motorized, or road-bound attack, cornmanders
and leaders should position antiarmor weapons and machine
guns so their primary sectors are to the flanks of the reverse slope.
c. Perimeter Defense. The major advantage of the perimeter defense
is the preparedness of the platoon to defend against an attack
from any direction. The main disadvantage is that combat power is not
concentrated at first against an enemy avenue of approach. A perimeter
defense differs from other defenses in that:
• Unoccupied areas between squads are smaller.
• The flanks of the squads are bent back to conform to the plan.
• The bulk of combat power is on the perimeter.
• The reserve is centrally located.
d. Defense in Sector. Defense in sector maximizes the combat abilities
of t he infantry. It allows the platoon to fight throughout the depth of
the sector using dispersed small-unit tacties.
(1) The platoon is usually assigned a sector within the company
sector. The platoon leader may in turn assign sectors to
individual squads to permit maximum freedom of action for the squad to
defend. The platoon leader must remember that the squad has no way to
call for fire support other than through the platoon net. FOs may be
attached, or as a minimum leaders must be prepared to assist in calls for
(2) Each squad conducts detailed reconnaissance of its sector and
identifies all likely enemy avenues of approach, choke points, kill zones,
obstacles, patrol bases, and cache sites. They also identify all tentative
(3) The platoon leader confirms the selected tentative sites and
incorporates them into his concept. He designates
initial positions and the sequence in which successive positions arc to be
occupied. He gives each squad specific guidance concerning contingency
plans, rally points, and other coordinating instructions.
(4) Squads then prepare the defense in the sequence designated by
the platoon leader. They initially prepare the primary position and then
a hasty supplementary position, and then they select the alternate position.
Squads improve (he positions as time permits.
Concept of the operation for a defense in a sector.
(5) When Security warns of approaching enemy, the squad occupies
its primary positions and prepares to engage the enemy. As the enemy
moves into the choke point or kill zone, the squad initiates an ambush. It
engages the enemy targets only as long as squads do not become decisively
engaged. Squads then move to their next position and repeat the same
process. The leader must plan the disengagement Supporting positions,
the use of smoke, and rehearsals are key to effective disengagements.
Depending on METT-T factors, the entire battle maybe fought this way.
Some variations of this technique include the following:
(a) Allowing the enemy to exhaust himself reacting to numerous
ambushes, then conduct a violent counterattack along previously rehearsed
routes to complete the destruction of the enemy. The platoon
leader can do (his by retaining direct control over a large portion of the
platoon and committing it at the decisive moment. An alternative is to
use prearranged signals to consolidate the platoon at a rally point; then
to conduct the counterattack.
(b) Having the forward ambush teams hold their fire until the lead
elements of the enemy formation hit another ambush deeper in the sector.
Then ambush the the next enemy element as it passes through the kill
zone. This technique destroys the cohesion of the enemy and is especially
effective if the ambush eliminates the command group of the enemy unit.
(c) Planning indirect fires to cause more enemy casualties at ambush
sites along a well-defined route.
(6) Casualty evacuation and resupply of ammunition and water are
particularly difficult when defending this way.
e. Mutually Supporting Battle Positions. Platoons and squads use
this technique to concentrate firepower into a given engagement area.
This technique prevents the attacker from focusing on the entire defensive
(1) Leaders must ensure that the position is organized in depth, that
all likely avenues of approach arc covered by fire, and that all positions
have interlocking fires. Each position must be supported by another
position that can deliver fires into the flank or rear of the enemy attacking
it. Leaders must include obstacles in the fire plan to slow and stop the
enemy in the engagement area-to include extensive use of mines. Squads
patrol forward of the BP to provide security. They harass the enemy to
disorganize and confuse him as to the location of the main defenses.
NOTE: Fighting positions are not located on likely avenues of approach.
(2) The positioning of squads, organization of the engagement area,
and fire control measures arc critical to the succcss of this technique.
Leaders position their squads in relation to the avenue of approach.
Platoon Leaders use essential control measures to mass fires against the
enemy within their sectors.
(3) variations of this technique include:
• Opening fire at the some time and withdrawing on command.
• Opening fire one element at a time. As the enemy orients
on each element firing at them and begins to maneuver
against it, other elements open fire and the original
clement withdraws once it is no longer receiving
enemy fire. It either moves to a new position or
to a rally point.
• Maneuvering to prevent the enemy from withdrawing
• Designating more than one engagement area. Leaders
use supplementary and on-order positions and secondary
sectors of fire to mass fire into engagement areas as required.
f. Control Measures. Leaders use control measures to assign responsibilities,
coordinate fires and maneuver, control combat operations, and
clarify their concept of the operation. Additionally, control measures
ensure the distribution of fires throughout the platoon’s area of responsibility
and the initial positioning and subsequent maneuver of squads.
(1) Graphic control measures used in the defense include sectors,
battle positions, boundaries, contact points, coordination points, forward
edge of the battle area (FEBA), strongpoints, target reference points
(TRP), assembly areas, phase lines, passage points and lanes, release
points, and engagement areas.
(2) Fire commands and control measures for individual and key
weapons also constitute a type of control measure available to leaders.
Weapons control measures include range cards, sectors of fire, principle
direction of fire, final protective line, final protective fires, and target
reference points. Most of these appear on the range card.
In addition, antiarmor gunners, machine gun [cures, fire teams,
squads, and platoons can be given engagement priorities and fire commands.
g. Obstacles. Obstacles give strenght to a defense when properly
employed. Platoons and squads incorporate existing and reinforcing
obstacles into their defense and construct other obstacles systems with
mines and wire.
(1) Considerations. Leaders must integrate their obstacle plans with
direct and indirect fire plans and with their scheme of maneuver. Platoons
and squads always cover obstacles by fire and observation. They protect
obstacles with antipersonnel mines, trip flares, and warning devices. They
camouflage wire or hide it in natural terrain features.
(2) Classification. Wire obstacles have three classifications based on
their use and location. Priority for emplacement normally goes to tactical
wire. Additionally, leaders can organize their obstacles so that one obstacle
can serve both tactical and protective functions.
(a) Tactical. Platoons site tactical wire parallel to and along the
friendly side of the FPLs of their major weapons. Tactical wire holds the
enemy where he can be killed or wounded by automatic rifle fire, Claymores,
hand grenades, and machine gun tire.
(b) Protective. Squads locate protective wire to prevent surprise
assaults from points close to the defense area. It normally lies just outside
of hand-grenade range and well within both day and night observation.
(c) Supplementary. Platoons and squads use supplementary wire to
disguise the exact line of tactical wire and to give continuity to the
company obstacle plan.
Security includes any measure taken by platoons and squads against
actions that may reduce their effectiveness. It involves avoiding detection
by the enemy or deceiving the enemy about friendly positions and intentions.
It also includes finding the enemy and knowing as much about his
positions and intentions as possible. Security allows units to retain freedom
of action and is an important part of maintaining the initiative. The
requirement for security is an inherent part of all platoon operations.
Platoons and squads secure themselves when they move, attack, and
defend. As part of a larger formation, they may undertake security
operations that involve patrolling; establishing squad-sized OPs on a
screen line; or executing advance, flank, or rear guard missions for the
main body in a movement to contact.
a. Security During Movement. Platoons and squads enhance security
during movement by:
• Using the proper movement formation and technique.
• Moving as fast as the situation will allow. This may
degrade the enemy’s ability to detect the platoon or squad
and the effectiveness of his fires once detected.
• Moving along terrain that offers cover and concealment.
• Enforcing noise and light discipline.
• Using proper camouflage techniques.
b. Security in the Offense. Security in the offense includes reconnaissance
and security missions to locate the enemy and protect friendly
forces from surprise while leaving them free to deploy when contact is
made with the enemy. All platoons and squads are responsible for their
own local security. They may also be given specific reconnaissance and
security tasks as part of the company or battalion plan. Platoons and
squads conduct patrols, establish OPs, and move using appropriate
movement formations and techniques to accomplish both reconnaissance
and security tasks.
c. Security in the Defense. In the defense, platoons and squads use
both active and passive measures to enhance security. Platoons also add
to their security by actions taken to deny enemy reconnaissance elements
accurate information on friendly positions. This includes the destruction
of enemy reconnaissance elements and the use of deception measures.
(1) Active measures include:
• The use of OPs and patrols.
• The establishment of specific levels of alert within
the platoon. The level can be adjusted based on the
• Establishment of stand-to times. The platoon’s SOP
should detail the platoon’s activities for stand-to.
(2) Passive measures include camouflage; movement control; noise
and light discipline; proper radiotelephone procedures; and ground sensors,
night vision devices, and antiarmor weapons’ day and nightsights.